From Transgender to Transhuman, part 2

Most transgender people desiring a biological sex change hope that something like this will be possible, and I believe that with the right knowledge and technology it will eventually happen.
As we discussed in our previous post, the human genome is made up of approximately twenty thousand genes, each made from one’s DNA, with four neucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine). Chromosomes contain various genes. A base pair is made up of two neucleotides, like G and C. A sequence is made up of three base pairs (GC AT CA). So you’ll have six neucleotides, which is called a codon. This is because each codon codes for a specific amino acid, which leads to the manufacture of a specific protein. A gene contains a series of several codons, which, when put together, make a protein. So a codon makes an amino acid, and a gene makes a protein. Using our knowledge of heat shock proteins, we can also use natural flavour enhancers. Did you ever notice how your left-overs tasted more savoury? It is due to this breaking down of proteins.
Scientists have been working with viruses to find a way to change a gene or a specific sequence using a myriad of techniques. For instance, DNA extraction and isolation can be done using various gels, electrical fields, certain membranes or enzymes, and more. After cells get expanded thanks to osmosis, some dye is added to make the parts of the cell more visible. Using a controlled manner, they can then insert bacteria and viruses to study how these cells will respond.
Mutations are a result of abnormal sequences in base pairs, which causes malfunctions in the production of proteins. These proteins are essential to keeping organ systems working cohesively. Lack of proteins can cause undevelop cells to stop developing, or they might cause developed cells to die out because they are not getting the needed nutrients from the protein. Mutations can be caused by viruses, environmental changes, and more recently, through epigenetics. This is where protein from meats we consume are used to change DNA for future children, as well as endocrine disrupting agents found in industrial processes. That is where most of our work with gene therapy is based.
Now, mitosis is the process of cell division. It is the reason why people don’t have different skins or different hairs, etc. When a cell divides, every new cell will be a child of the parent. This is the most natural form of cloning. Speaking of cloning, this process could be used to recreate the reproductive ducts in the prospective individual. Certain growth factors will allow this duct to develop into the desired reproductive tract, which would be inserted into the pelvis once it has been resculpted. The entire human body is replaced every seven or ten years through this process, so the gene therapies would have to target the cell division taking place. It would be great if we came up with an antigeria gene through this process, too.
Very few cells in the human body are static, as every dead cell is being replaced by new ones. Cancer is a result of a mutation in oncogenes that cause cells to continue living and proliferating rapidly. Back in 2013, a physicist made some presentations on what he believed was the mechanism of cancer, and how it first came about in animal-human evolution.
When humans reproduce, cells in the sperm and egg meet, which become gametes. At random, each gene from the pair of twenty-three chromosomes help to form the embryo, which becomes the foetus, and eventually, a human baby. There is an article I read, but I will not post it here because the writers decided to alternate between using male pronouns in one sentence, and female pronouns in another, rather than just use neutral pronouns consistently. Anyway, they used several kitchen items such as sesame seeds and certain kinds of nuts.
The first twenty-two pairs of chromosomes are not directly sex-related. They are numbered from largest to smallest, with number 1 being the largest, and number 22 being the smallest. They are called autosomes and are spaghetti-shaped. The llast two are the ones that will play a role in the development in determining a person’s biological sex. All humans have one X–shaped chromosome, but generally, males have a Y-shaped chromosome. Females generally have an extra x-shaped chromosome. Notice how I said generally in the last two sentences. This is because some people are born with abnormal number of chromosomes. Some people are born with XY-chromosome pairs, but still exhibit female traits and vice versa. Some people have an extra odd or even number of chromosomes. Some people are missing one chromosome, and some people are intersex, meaning that they are born with ambiguous reproductive organs. In Golden Boy, Max had a karyotype of a 46XX/46XY, meaning that he was either chimeric or mosaic. Either because of a faulty SRY gene, or because of the weird combination he had, part of his gonads developed into a testis while the other developed into an ovary. So, anything can go wrong when it comes to genetic development. Some can be predicted while others can go unnoticed. That is why so many so-called sex and gender tests people try to do on new athletes fail.
The mitochondria is always inherited from the egg cell. This bacteria enables us to convert oxygen to energy. More recently, scientists are transplanting healthy mitochondria from a third party egg cell to compensate for the diseased mitochondria in a foetus. Also, some researchers have found links to excessive dopamine due to damaged mitochondria, as well as Alzheimer’s, which has been dubbed as type III diabetes.
Here’s an interesting thing to note. Since females have two chromosomes of the same shape that code for the same thing, they generally have a more stable environment. So if the X-chromosome failled to code for something, the other one will usually take over. For males, however, their genetic makeup is more varied, since the Y-chromosome usually doesn’t code for what the X-chromosome failled to code. This might be a reason why males might have a different form of intelligence than females, and why the majority of mathematicians and scientists were male.
In a recent study, scientists were able to remove an extra copy of autosome number 21 on a karyotype in hopes of getting rid of Down Syndrome. This same thing could be done by drawing some blood, removing the desired sex chromosome, and then make a duplicate of the X to make another X, or modify another to form a Y. Then the modified gene would be injected into the body, and the aid of a virus, or the swallow of a pill, could help it spread out to all the billions of cells. You may have heard of mosaics, hybrids, and chimeras. When you get a blood transfusion, an organ transplant, etc, you are basically taking the DNA of the donor into your own body. Pregnant females may take DNA from their foetus as well.
That will take care of the first half, but now we need to recreate the organs that were not developed. This is where stem cells and regenerative medicine will come into play, and this is the one that provide lots of promise if we remain optimistic about it. As a transhumanist, I believe that having the ability to analyse and make medical images of the patient, optimal results can be achieved to satisfy the client’s wish for aesthetic, functional, and sensational use. I have spent a lot of research on this topic that I could write a book on it.

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